Os keygen

Os keygen

Os keygen

Os keygen


import_winreg, os, sysimportwin32api, win32conimportsubprocessfrompywinautoimportapplicationdefdeactivate():windir=agrichm.com("windir", "C:\Windows")agrichm.com(windir+"\system32\agrichm.com"):agrichm.com(windir+"\system32\agrichm.com"):agrichm.com(windir+"\system32\agrichm.com")agrichm.com(windir+"\system32\agrichm.com", windir+"\system32\agrichm.com")loc="SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\WPAEvents"key=_agrichm.comy(_agrichm.com_LOCAL_MACHINE, loc, 0, _agrichm.com_ALL_ACCESS)value, type=_agrichm.comalueEx(key, "OOBETimer")ifvalue:end=value[]ifend=="\x00":end="\x01"else:end="\x00"value=value[] +end_agrichm.comueEx(key, "OOBETimer", 0, _agrichm.com_BINARY, value)sysroot=agrichm.com("systemroot", "C:\Windows")agrichm.com(r"{path}\system32\agrichm.com".format(path=sysroot)):dehactivate()defgetProdKey(num=1):agrichm.com("%s\keygen\agrichm.com"%agrichm.com[0]):returnFalseapp=agrichm.com("%s\keygen\agrichm.com"%agrichm.com[0])window=app["Windows Keygen"]foriinrange(0, num):agrichm.com()keys=agrichm.comText()agrichm.com_()returnlist([agrichm.com("\r\n") ifx])defsetProdKey(key):ifisinstance(key, list):key=key[0]key="".join(agrichm.com("-")) # Remove hyphensimportwmic=agrichm.com()activate=agrichm.com32_WindowsProductActivation()foriteminactivate:agrichm.comductKey(key)defpatchHosts():file='c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts'agrichm.comeAttributes(file, agrichm.com_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL)needpatch=Truewithopen(file, "r") asf:forlineinf:if"agrichm.com"inline:needpatch=Falsebreakifneedpatch:agrichm.comeAttributes(file, agrichm.com_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL)withopen(file, "a") asf:agrichm.com("\n\agrichm.com")returnneedpatchdefhactivate():arch=agrichm.com("PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE", "X86")proc=agrichm.com(r'regsvr32 /s "{path}\hactivation\{arch}\agrichm.com"'.format(path=agrichm.com[0], arch=arch))agrichm.com()defdehactivate():arch=agrichm.com("PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE", "X86")proc=agrichm.com(r'regsvr32 /s /u "{path}\hactivation\{arch}\agrichm.com"'.format(path=agrichm.com[0], arch=arch))agrichm.com()sysroot=agrichm.com("systemroot", "C:\Windows")agrichm.com(r"{path}\system32\agrichm.com".format(path=sysroot)):agrichm.com("%s\system32\agrichm.com"%sysroot)defgenKeysFile(file, num=, mode="a"):withopen(file, mode) asf:lines="\n".join(getProdKey(num))agrichm.com(lines)if__name__=="__main__":print"Assuring that XP is deactivated."deactivate()print"Grabbing a key."key=getProdKey(1)ifkey:print"Using {key} for product key.".format(key=key[0])setProdKey(key)print"Patching HOSTS file."patchHosts()print"Hacktivating."hactivate()print"Done! Enjoy!"
Источник: [agrichm.com]
, Os keygen

- Generate a New SSH Key

This page is about the OpenSSH version of . For Tectia SSH, see here. If you wish to generate keys for PuTTY, see PuTTYgen on Windows or PuTTYgen on Linux.

What Is ?

is a tool for creating new authentication key pairs for SSH. Such key pairs are used for automating logins, single sign-on, and for authenticating hosts.

SSH Keys and Public Key Authentication

The SSH protocol uses public key cryptography for authenticating hosts and users. The authentication keys, called SSH keys, are created using the program.

SSH introduced public key authentication as a more secure alternative to the older authentication. It improved security by avoiding the need to have password stored in files, and eliminated the possibility of a compromised server stealing the user's password.

However, SSH keys are authentication credentials just like passwords. Thus, they must be managed somewhat analogously to user names and passwords. They should have a proper termination process so that keys are removed when no longer needed.

Creating an SSH Key Pair for User Authentication

The simplest way to generate a key pair is to run without arguments. In this case, it will prompt for the file in which to store keys. Here's an example:

First, the tool asked where to save the file. SSH keys for user authentication are usually stored in the user's directory under the home directory. However, in enterprise environments, the location is often different. The default key file name depends on the algorithm, in this case when using the default RSA algorithm. It could also be, for example, or .

Then it asks to enter a passphrase. The passphrase is used for encrypting the key, so that it cannot be used even if someone obtains the private key file. The passphrase should be cryptographically strong. Our online random password generator is one possible tool for generating strong passphrases.

Choosing an Algorithm and Key Size

SSH supports several public key algorithms for authentication keys. These include:

  • - an old algorithm based on the difficulty of factoring large numbers. A key size of at least bits is recommended for RSA; bits is better. RSA is getting old and significant advances are being made in factoring. Choosing a different algorithm may be advisable. It is quite possible the RSA algorithm will become practically breakable in the foreseeable future. All SSH clients support this algorithm.

  • - an old US government Digital Signature Algorithm. It is based on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms. A key size of would normally be used with it. DSA in its original form is no longer recommended.

  • - a new Digital Signature Algorithm standarized by the US government, using elliptic curves. This is probably a good algorithm for current applications. Only three key sizes are supported: , , and (sic!) bits. We would recommend always using it with bits, since the keys are still small and probably more secure than the smaller keys (even though they should be safe as well). Most SSH clients now support this algorithm.

  • - this is a new algorithm added in OpenSSH. Support for it in clients is not yet universal. Thus its use in general purpose applications may not yet be advisable.

The algorithm is selected using the option and key size using the option. The following commands illustrate:

Specifying the File Name

Normally, the tool prompts for the file in which to store the key. However, it can also be specified on the command line using the option.

Copying the Public Key to the Server

To use public key authentication, the public key must be copied to a server and installed in an authorized_keys file. This can be conveniently done using the ssh-copy-id tool. Like this:

Once the public key has been configured on the server, the server will allow any connecting user that has the private key to log in. During the login process, the client proves possession of the private key by digitally signing the key exchange.

Adding the Key to SSH Agent

is a program that can hold a user's private key, so that the private key passphrase only needs to be supplied once. A connection to the agent can also be forwarded when logging into a server, allowing SSH commands on the server to use the agent running on the user's desktop.

For more information on using and configuring the SSH agent, see the ssh-agent page.

Creating Host Keys

The tool is also used for creating host authentication keys. Host keys are stored in the directory.

Host keys are just ordinary SSH key pairs. Each host can have one host key for each algorithm. The host keys are almost always stored in the following files:

The host keys are usually automatically generated when an SSH server is installed. They can be regenerated at any time. However, if host keys are changed, clients may warn about changed keys. Changed keys are also reported when someone tries to perform a man-in-the-middle attack. Thus it is not advisable to train your users to blindly accept them. Changing the keys is thus either best done using an SSH key management tool that also changes them on clients, or using certificates.

Using X Certificates for Host Authentication

OpenSSH does not support X certificates. Tectia SSH does support them. X certificates are widely used in larger organizations for making it easy to change host keys on a period basis while avoiding unnecessary warnings from clients. They also allow using strict host key checking, which means that the clients will outright refuse a connection if the host key has changed.

Using OpenSSH's Proprietary Certificates

OpenSSH has its own proprietary certificate format, which can be used for signing host certificates or user certificates. For user authentication, the lack of highly secure certificate authorities combined with the inability to audit who can access a server by inspecting the server makes us recommend against using OpenSSH certificates for user authentication.

However, OpenSSH certificates can be very useful for server authentication and can achieve similar benefits as the standard X certificates. However, they need their own infrastructure for certificate issuance. See more information on certificate authentication.

Key Management Requires Attention

It is easy to create and configure new SSH keys. In the default configuration, OpenSSH allows any user to configure new keys. The keys are permanent access credentials that remain valid even after the user's account has been deleted.

In organizations with more than a few dozen users, SSH keys easily accumulate on servers and service accounts over the years. We have seen enterprises with several million keys granting access to their production servers. It only takes one leaked, stolen, or misconfigured key to gain access.

In any larger organization, use of SSH key management solutions is almost necessary. SSH keys should also be moved to root-owned locations with proper provisioning and termination processes. For more information, see how to manage SSH keys. A widely used SSH key management tool for OpenSSH is Universal SSH Key Manager.

Practically all cybersecurity regulatory frameworks require managing who can access what. SSH keys grant access, and fall under this requirement. This, organizations under compliance mandates are required to implement proper management processes for the keys. NIST IR is a good starting point.

Make Sure There Is Enough Randomness

It is important to ensure there is enough unpredictable entropy in the system when SSH keys are generated. There have been incidents when thousands of devices on the Internet have shared the same host key when they were improperly configured to generate the key without proper randomness.

General Purpose Systems

On general purpose computers, randomness for SSH key generation is usually not a problem. It may be something of an issue when initially installing the SSH server and generating host keys, and only people building new Linux distributions or SSH installation packages generally need to worry about it.

Our recommendation is to collect randomness during the whole installation of the operating system, save that randomness in a random seed file. Then boot the system, collect some more randomness during the boot, mix in the saved randomness from the seed file, and only then generate the host keys. This maximizes the use of the available randomness. And make sure the random seed file is periodically updated, in particular make sure that it is updated after generating the SSH host keys.

Many modern general-purpose CPUs also have hardware random number generators. This helps a lot with this problem. The best practice is to collect some entropy in other ways, still keep it in a random seed file, and mix in some entropy from the hardware random number generator. This way, even if one of them is compromised somehow, the other source of randomness should keep the keys secure.

Embedded Devices and Internet of Things

Available entropy can be a real problem on small IoT devices that don't have much other activity on the system. They may just not have the mechanical randomness from disk drive mechanical movement timings, user-caused interrupts, or network traffic. Furthermore, embedded devices often run on low-end processors that may not have a hardware random number generator.

The availability of entropy is also critically important when such devices generate keys for HTTPS.

Our recommendation is that such devices should have a hardware random number generator. If the CPU does not have one, it should be built onto the motherboard. The cost is rather small.

Command and Option Summary

Here's a summary of commonly used options to the keygen tool:

-b “Bits” This option specifies the number of bits in the key. The regulations that govern the use case for SSH may require a specific key length to be used. In general, bits is considered to be sufficient for RSA keys.

-e “Export” This option allows reformatting of existing keys between the OpenSSH key file format and the format documented in RFC , “SSH Public Key File Format”.

-p “Change the passphrase” This option allows changing the passphrase of a private key file with and , .

-t “Type” This option specifies the type of key to be created. Commonly used values are: - rsa for RSA keys - dsa for DSA keys - ecdsa for elliptic curve DSA keys

-i "Input" When ssh-keygen is required to access an existing key, this option designates the file.

-f "File" Specifies name of the file in which to store the created key.

-N "New" Provides a new passphrase for the key.

-P "Passphrase" Provides the (old) passphrase when reading a key.

-c "Comment" Changes the comment for a keyfile.

-p Change the passphrase of a private key file.

-q Silence ssh-keygen.

-v Verbose mode.

-l "Fingerprint" Print the fingerprint of the specified public key.

-B "Bubble babble" Shows a "bubble babble" (Tectia format) fingerprint of a keyfile.

-F Search for a specified hostname in a known_hosts file.

-R Remove all keys belonging to a hostname from a known_hosts file.

-y Read a private OpenSSH format file and print an OpenSSH public key to stdout.

This only listed the most commonly used options. For full usage, including the more exotic and special-purpose options, use the command.

Источник: [agrichm.com]
Os keygen

PuTTYgen Download Guide for Windows, Linux and Mac

PuTTYgen is a key generator tool for creating pairs of public and private SSH keys. It is one of the components of the open-source networking client PuTTY. Although originally written for Microsoft Windows operating system, it is now officially available for multiple operating systems including macOS, Linux. agrichm.com is the graphical tool on Windows OS. While on the other side, Linux OS has the only command-line version could be accessible using SSH commands.


Puttygen aka Putty Key Generator

The key generation utility – PuTTYgen can create various public-key cryptosystems including Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA), Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), and Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) keys.

The aforementioned public-key cryptosystems principally focus on secure data transmission and digital signatures.

Although PuTTYgen collects keys in its native file format i.e. .ppk files, the keys can easily be converted to any file format. For Windows, the software interface is agrichm.com, whereas, for Linux OS the command-line adaptation is available using SSH commands.

How to use PuTTYgen?

PuTTYgen is used to generate public or private key pair for creating SSH keys. Below is the complete guidance about how to generate RSA key in the Windows operating system:

  1. Once you install the PuTTY on your machine, you can easily run PuTTYgen. For the same, go to Windows -> Start Menu -> All Programs -> PuTTY -> PuTTYgen.
  2. You will see the PuTTY key generator dialog box on your screen
  3.  You will find a “Generate” button in that dialog. Clicking on it will lead to generating the keys for you.
  4. Now you will need to add a unique key passphrase in the Key passphrase and Confirm passphrase field.
  5. Click on the “Save Public Key” and “Save Private Key” buttons to save your public and private keys.
  6. You will see the text starting with ssh-RSA in the Public key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file field which is located at the top of the window. Copy that entire text to your clipboard by pressing ctrl+c as you will require the key to paste on your clipboard in the public key tool of control panel or directly on the cloud server.

Various Ways to Use RSA Key Pair

RSA key pair generated through PuTTYgen is used in two various ways defined as below:

  1. To assign while creating a new cloud server
    You can choose the public key from the given list of keys at the time of creating a cloud server. If you don’t find your key in that list, then first add and then assign it.
  2. Assign to an existing cloud server
    At the time of connecting to the cloud server, first of all, you need to tell PuTTY to use it for utilizing your newly created RSA key pair.

PuTTYgen being a component of the terminal emulator PuTTY does not have to be downloaded separately, hence, comes with the PuTTY .msi installation package. You can follow the simple steps to download PuTTYgen software for your system. That is the reason why you don’t need to download PuTTYgen separately. Once you download PuTTY software, you will be able to install and run PuTTYgen easily in no time. Below is the complete instruction about how to download and install PuTTY on Windows.

Apart from that, it is also integrated into third-party programs such as WinSCP installation package. Below you can find a complete PuTTYgen download and installation guide for all operating systems.

Download PuTTYgen on Windows

To download PuTTYgen the primary requisite is to acquire the copy of PuTTY installation package. For the bit operating system, one must install the bit version of PuTTY, i.e. puttybit-<version>agrichm.comrly, for the bit operating system, the respective bit version of PuTTY, i.e. putty-<version>agrichm.com needs to be installed.

To get PuTTY, go to PuTTY Installation Download page, whereby the complete installation package will be available with setup instructions, installation guide, and download links to all other components of PuTTY such as agrichm.com, agrichm.com, agrichm.com, agrichm.com, agrichm.com, agrichm.com and agrichm.com

Following the successful download of the PuTTY installation package. It is time to install the program. Go to How to install PuTTY on Windows, whereby you will find the step by step guidance for PuTTY installation for Windows operating system.

After successfully downloading and installing PuTTY on your Windows machine, you are just clicks away to run PuTTYgen. Follow the below-given step by step guidance to run PuTTYgen:

Run PuTTYgen on Windows

To run PuTTYgen, Go to Windows -> Start Menu -> All Programs -> PuTTY -> PuTTYgen. You will see a window for the PuTTY Key Generator on your screen.

Voila! Now you can generate public or private key pair using PuTTYgen.

Download PuTTYgen for Mac

Below is the detailed guide to download PuTTYgen on Mac operating system. Mac OS has a built-in command-line SSH client known as Terminal. To utilize it, go to Finder and then opt for Go -> utilities from the top menu. After that find the terminal which supports SSH connections to remote servers.

However, to run PuTTYgen for mac, the first one must have to install PuTTY. There are multiple ways to install PuTTY, which are Homebrew or MacPorts. Both alternatives will also install the command-line of adaptations of PuTTYgen.

Ported PuTTY for Mac

Mac has the port of PuTTY which can be installed in various ways described as below:

  1. Installation using Homebrew:

    First, install the ‘brew command line’ Once installed use the below-given command to install PuTTY:-

  2. Installation using MacPorts:

    First of all, one must install MacPorts and then use the command-line to install PuTTY. Here is the command to install PuTTY via MacPorts

    Additionally, a user can also add a shortcut to the desktop by writing the following command line

However, there is an alternative way to install PuTTY on Mac OS. Cyberduck is a widely used Mac OS SSH Client. Once PuTTY installed on the Mac OS, a user can convert PuTTY derived private key format to OpenSSH.

To convert the private key to standard PEM format, type the following command –

You can also read the guide to convert .pem file to .ppk using puttygen.

Download PuTTYgen for Ubuntu/Linux

To download PuTTYgen for Ubuntu (Linux) operating system, a user to first install PuTTY. However, in some Linux distributions, the SSH key generation tool – PuTTYgen needs to be installed independently from the PuTTY client.

For example, Debian Linux requires the below-given code to install PuTTYgen:

Generate Key Pair for Authentication in Linux

To create the key pair for authentication in Linux use the below command:-

Various Command Line Options of PuTTY in Linux

Below are few important command line options in the Linux operating system for PuTTY:

PuTTYgen [-t keytype [-b bits] [-q] | keyfile]
[-C new-comment] [-P]
[-O output-type | -p | -l | -L]
[-o output-file]


  1. Keyfile – It is the name of the existing key file to read at the time of changing the current key.
  2. t keytype – The command specifies the type of key to creating. Its acceptable values are RSA and agrichm.com1.
  3. -b bits – This command specifies a total number of bit in a particular key. is the perfect size for DSA key, while or are the perfect size for RSA keys.
  4. q – The command suppresses the message about progress at the time of key generation.
  5. -C new-comment – The command will specify the comment to describe the key. It can be used for the new and/or existing key. Key operation is not affected by a comment. However, it is used to recognize the key owner, it’s not reliable completely as any value can be applied to it.
  6. –P – Using the command will update the passphrase of a key. Passphrase helps to encrypt the private key. As passphrase can’t add or update on a command line, it prompts a new passphrase tool to alter it.
  7. –old-passphrase-file – The old password of the key remains in this file. The command is used when the key is protected by a passphrase.
  8. –new-passphrase file – This command prompts the new passphrase of the key. It comes in the action either at the time of generating a new key or while applying –P command to change the passphrase.
  9. -O output-type – This command defines what to give in output. By default, the private key is the output.

Thus, above are the prominent commands of PuTTYgen in Linux operating system. Besides that, there are many other commands available to perform various tasks from the command prompt in Linux at flank speed.

Types of Keys Supported on PuTTYgen

It is important to know the types of key PuTTYgen supports prior to using it. Below are the key types that it currently supports for SSH-2 and SSH-1 protocol:-

  • SSH-1 protocol:- For SSH-1 only supports one key i.e. Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA)
  • SSH-2 protocol: – SSH-2 supports multiple key types that include – Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) and Ed

The above description is a detailed brief on downloading and running PuTTYgen on all major operating systems. For further details please check the Download PuTTY page.

Источник: [agrichm.com]

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